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Clinic: Diagnose/Treat Patients

Diagnose Content

Tools for Diagnosis and Treatment Decisions


Make a Differential Diagnosis

Point-of-Care Tools

Evidence-Based Optometry Tutorial

Systematic Reviews/Cochrane Library

Other Evidence-Based Treatment Tools

Practice Guidelines

Eye Care for Patients with Intellectual Disability or Neurodevelopmental Delay



Make a Differential Diagnosis

Use the following references to help you make a differential diagnosis:

   Wills Eye Manual, 7th ed. (2017)  [2nd copy]

   Ocular Differential Diagnosis, 9th ed. (2012)

   UpToDate (NECO email addresses only)


   Clinical Medicine in Optometric Practice, 2nd ed. (2008)

   AAO Preferred Practice Patterns


Point-of-Care Tools

As a busy clinician, you may not have time to evaluate all the evidence to make a decision on treatment or answer your patient's questions. Point-of-care tools do the work for you, compiling and summarizing current studies on vision topics and beyond. Our point-of-care tools include:


An evidence-based clinical decision support resource with content that is researched, created, and continually updated by over 6,700 leading physicians. If you don't yet have one, register for an UpToDate login to access it from anywhere. (Note: Licensed for use by those with email addresses only.) Features include:

  • Topic summaries and treatment recommendations
  • Medical calculators
  • Drug database
  • Patient information
  • Links to full text articles where available
  • ...and more!


Quick access to 3,000+ health-related topics.

  • Drug information
  • Risk factors
  • Prevalence/incidence
  • Etiology and pathogenesis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention and screening
  • Patient handouts

Evidence-Based Optometry Tutorial

Interested in learning more about evidence-based medicine/evidence-based optometry? Check out our tutorial.


Systematic Reviews/Cochrane Library

You can find systematic reviews at:

   Cochrane Library

   PubMed Clinical Queries

Type in a search term and then look at the middle column, which contains a list of systematic reviews on the search term.


Other Evidence-Based Medicine Tools

   Trip Database (Turning Research Into Practice)

   BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine

   ACP Journal Club

Predominantly for internists.

   ACCESSSS Smart Search from McMaster PLUS

Free, but registration required.


Practice Guidelines

   AAO Preferred Practice Patterns

   AOA Optometric Clinical Practice Guidelines

Note that some guides are quite outdated at this point, and that the evidence-based guidelines are likely the most reliable.



   Health Information Privacy

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Reviews HIPAA and other health information related acts.


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