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New England College of Optometry Logo LIBRARY

Evidence-Based Optometry


The apply stage involves two steps:

  1. answering your foreground question, and
  2. taking the information you have found and presenting it to your patient

After reading the abstracts and discussion sections of the articles you have acquired, you should have an idea of how various researchers have answered your question.


Your Patient's Values

After finding studies on your topic and appraising the studies for validity, the next step is to consider your patient's values.

What medications might your patient be willing or unwilling to take? What types of surgeries might your patient consider? 

Talk with your patient. Understand what your patient is and isn't willing to do. Your patient may have financial constraints, have insurance that does not cover your proposed treatment, have suffered unpleasant side effects with a medication, or be hesitant to try a treatment due to concerning complications. 

Exclude any study that discusses a treatment that isn't in line with your patient's values.

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