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Citing & Copyright

NLM Citation Examples

Journal Articles in NLM Format

Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, et al. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.

Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, et al. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.

Voorhees LI, Ryan JB, Hopping RL,  et al. Men and women in optometry II. Attitudes toward career and family. J Am Optom Assoc 1997 Jul;68(7):435-47.

Note: After the third author, use "et al."

Print Books in NLM Format
American Optometric Association.  Caring for the eyes of America, 1998: a profile of the optometric profession. St. Louis: The Association, 1996.

Hawkins, Daniel R.; Rosenbaum, Sara. Lives in the balance; a national and county profile of America’s medically underserved. Washington (DC): National Association of Community Health Centers, 1992.


eBooks in NLM Format
Patrias, Karen. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling, Daniel L., technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [cited 2007 November 15]. Available from:


Parts of Books in NLM Format
US optical industry handbook 1996. NY: Jobson Publishing Corporation; 1996. Defining the market. A portrait of the wearer; p. 11-2.

US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 1998 with socioeconomic status and health chartbook. Hyattsville (Md): The Department; 1998. Table 103. Active health personnel according to occupation and geographic region: United States, 1980, 1990, and 1995; p. 326.

UpToDate Topic in NLM Format

Jacobs DS. Open-angle glaucoma: Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis. In: Post T, editor. UpToDate. [Internet]. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate; 2019 [cited January 21, 2020]. Available from:


Replace the purple text with the author of the topic, the red text with the title of the topic, the year with the year in which the topic was most recently updated, and include the date you cited the topic.

Websites in NLM Format

Registry of Motor Vehicles.  Vision Policy Statement [Internet].  Boston (MA);  Commonwealth of Massachusetts; c1998  [cited 2001 Aug 15].  Available from:

Images in NLM Format

Authors. Journal title. Article title. Abbreviated Journal Title. Date of Publication;Volume(Issue):Page numbers. Name and Number of Part. Title of Part; page number.

Butany J, Carmichael K, Leong SW, Collins MJ. Coronary artery stents: identification and evaluation. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Aug;58(8):795-804. Table 3, Common stent complications; pg. 796.


Tables, images and figures are considered part of an article and are cited as such.

You may find that a researcher has used an image or figure from another article and reproduced it in their own article. In that case, you would want to cite the image from where it was originally produced.

Lectures/Presentations in NLM Format

Authors. Presentation title. Lecture presented at: [conference or institution]; Date of presentation; Place of presentation. 

Edmonds H, Holley R. Using other people's work. Lecture presented at: New England College of Optometry; 2020 Feb 11; Boston, MA.

NLM uses three major systems for in-text references: citation-sequencecitation-name, and name-year.


  • For name-year, place the author's name and the year of the publication in parentheses after a quote or piece of information. This is the same style used in APA. 

"Cataracts reduce visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, causing patients with advanced cataracts to fail the visual acuity requirements for a driver’s license" (Hwang et al. 2018).


  • To use citation-sequence, number the sources in your bibliography and indicate which source you are using by putting a corresponding superscripted number or footnote in your paper. 

"Cataracts reduce visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, causing patients with advanced cataracts to fail the visual acuity requirements for a driver’s license."1

References are listed in the order they appear in your paper in the bibliography:

1. Hwang AD, Tuccar-Burak M, Goldstein R, Peli E. Impact of Oncoming Headlight Glare With Cataracts: A Pilot Study. Front Psychol. 2018;9:164. 


  • Citation-name follows the same format, however references are listed at the end of your paper alphabetically by author. 

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