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Citing & Copyright

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APA Citation Style

Your reference list should be on a separate page and at the end of your paper. The title of this section should be “Reference List” (make sure that it’s in the center of the page). All lines after the first line of each entry should be indented. Authors are listed in alphabetical order with their last names first then followed by initials for their first name and middle (if applicable).

Note: Only the first word of a title is capitalized in your reference list.

Rules and Examples

Type of material Rule Example
Book in print (one author) Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (# ed.). Publisher. Greenhalgh, T. (2019). How to read a paper: The basics of evidence-based medicine and healthcare (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Book in print (two+ authors) Use an ampersand and a comma to separate the two authors  
eBook Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (# ed.). Publisher. URL  Greenhalgh, T. (2019). How to read a paper: The basics of evidence-based medicine and healthcare (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat05324a&AN=flo.2620174&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s5071557
Chapter in print or eBook (citing page numbers isn’t required for an eBook) Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of chapter. Title of book, (pp. X-XX). Publisher. URL Greenhalgh, T. (2019). Searching for Literature. How to read a paper: The basics of evidence-based medicine and healthcare (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat05324a&AN=flo.2620174&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s5071557
Journal article (one author) Lastname, F.M. (Year). Title of article. Journal title, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI See below example
Journal article (two+ authors) Use an ampersand and a comma to separate the two authors Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23(2), 161-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20105
Organization as author Write the organization's whole name American Psychological Association
Lecture/presentation (when citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title) Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Day). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL (if applicable) Edmonds, H. (2020, February 11). Using other people’s work [Lecture notes].
Personal communication (i.e. patient interview) A formal citation is not required. In-text: Something like, “As part of my study, I interviewed a patient…”  
UpToDate or DynaMed Lastname, F. M. (Year topic was last updated). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (# ed., if available). Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year from URL or DOI Jacobs, D. S. (2021). Cataract in adults. In UpToDate. Retrieved December 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cataract-in-adults
Image Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title: in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date. Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of New England College of Optometry]. Retrieved January 18, 2022, from https://goo.gl/maps/4vmL6VTkwqAF7Lgz6

APA In-Text Citations

Books and articles: 

(Author, Year of publication)

ex. (Greenhalgh, 2019) 

 

Direct quote: 

(Author, year, p./pp.)

ex. According to Greenhalgh (2019), “Evidence based medicine is much more than just reading papers” (p.1). 

or 

Greenhalgh (2019) found that “evidence based medicine is much more than just reading papers” (p.1); it’s about appraising and really understanding the studies that you read. 

 

(Note: When discussing the title of a source, make sure to capitalize all words with four or more letters long.) 




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